The precise nature of the hole in the centre of a donut has baffled the best minds in physics for centuries. Is the hole part of the donut, or is it a completely separate entity?
Donut Hole Decay (DHD) was discovered by Erwin Schrödinger and later explained by Steven Hawking.
Einstein and the Speed of Donuts
In his famous 1905 thought experiment, Einstein wrote, ‘Imagine a radioactive donut emitting photons.
The light produced by this donut will completely fill the donut hole, thus defining the shape of the hole.
Now, what would happen if you accelerated this light-producing donut beyond the speed of light?
Well, then the donut would move away from the light in its hole. In other words, the donut and its hole would separate!"
According to Einstein, this absurd situation, where a donut is located in one region of space and its hole in another, was just too silly for the universe to put up with. Thus Einstien reasoned the universe must have an in-built restriction on the speed of donuts.
“The speed of light is the maximum velocity at which a donut can travel through space.” - 'The Relative Donut' Albert Einstein, 1905.
Einstien theorized a donut hole cannot exist without the presence of a donut. Take away the donut, and the donut hole collapses to zero.
The Bohr Donut
On the other side of the argument was the great quantum physics, Neils Bohr.
In this 1912 Paper, Non-Euclidean Geometry and The 3-Torus Donut, Bohr wrote, "That which occupies the donut hole is not materially or spatially part of the donut. The donut and the donut hole are entirely independent entities."
Bohr was fully aware this concept is difficult to grasp, but as he famously said, "One must be mindful that at the level of the donut, nature is free to contradict common sense notions on the human plane.
Schrödinger and the Copenhagen Interpretation
In the 1930s, the greatest minds in physics met in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. They gattered in a attempt thrash out the donut hole conundrum once and for all.
Danish pastries were famous in Europe. Thus Copenhagen was the ideal location to delve into the donut.
The best bakers in the city worked overtime, producing great donut piles for the scientists to examine.
Schrödinger and his mathematical proof of something to do with donuts and donut holes - a masterstroke of insight that leading quantum physicists still pretend to understand.
The Austrian-Irish physicist, Erwin Schrödinger, was instrumental in formulating what came to be known as the Copenhagen Interpretation of Donuts. This model suggests the existence of a donut hole depends on the presence of a donut, and yet a donut and its hole can be separated in space and time, so long as they are entangled.
“The donut hole is simultaneously part of the donut and not part of the donut.” - Erwin Schrödinger